СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ПОДХОДЫ К ТЕРАПИИ ЭНДОКРИННОЙ ОФТАЛЬМОПАТИИ



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25298/2221-8785-2019-17-1-83-91


Л. В. Никонова (L. V. Nikonova), С. В. Тишковский (S. V. Tishkovskiy), В. И. Гадомская (V. I. Hadomskaya), Э. В. Давыдчик (E. V. Davydchyk), И. П. Дорошкевич (I. P. Doroshkevich)

Аннотация


Введение. Количество пациентов с патологией щитовидной железы увеличивается за счет людей, страдающих болезнью Грейвса, которая зачастую сопровождается эндокринной аутоиммунной офтальмопатией. Данное осложнение приводит к нарушению функций зрения и снижению качества жизни пациентов.

Цель. Проведен анализ отечественной и зарубежной литературы с целью изучения современных подходов к патогенетической и симптоматической терапии пациентов с эндокринной офтальмопатией.

Материал и методы. Проанализировано 55 литературных источников.

Результаты: проведена сравнительная оценка эффективности различных схем и способов лечения эндокринной офтальмопатии.

Выводы. Один из приоритетов в борьбе с эндокринной офтальмопатией – поиск новых методов и способов лечения, а также совершенствование существующих схем и программ.


Ключевые слова


эндокринная офтальмопатия, болезнь Грейвса, проптоз, глюкокортикоиды, цитостатики

Полный текст:

Литература


Consensus statement of the European Group on Graves’ orbitopathy (EUGOGO) on management of Graves’ Orbitopathy / L. Bartalena [et al.] // Eur. J. Endocrinol. – 2008. – Vol. 158, iss. 3. – P. 273-285. – doi: 10.1530/EJE-07-0666.

Bartalena L, Baldeschi L, Dickinson A, Eckstein A, Kendall-Taylor P, Marcocci C, Mourits M, Perros P, Boboridis K, Boschi A, Currò N, Daumerie C, Kahaly GJ, Krassas GE, Lane CM, Lazarus JH, Marinò M, Nardi M, Neoh C, Orgiazzi J, Pearce S, Pinchera A, Pitz S, Salvi M, Sivelli P, at al. Consensus statement of the European Group on Graves’ orbitopathy (EUGOGO) on management of Graves’ Orbitopathy. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2008;158(3):273-285. doi: 10.1530/EJE-07-0666.

Федеральные клинические рекомендации по диагностике и лечению эндокринной офтальмопатии при аутоиммунной патологии щитовидной железы / И. И. Дедов [и др.] // Проблемы эндокринологии. – 2015. – № 1 – С. 61-74.

Dedov II, Melnichenko GA, Sviridenko NJu, Troshina EA, Fadeev VV, Belovalova IM, Sheremeta MS, Rumjancev PO, Petunina NA, Grineva EN, Strongin LG, Neroev VV, Katargina LA, Saakjan SV, Panteleeva OG, Valskij VV, Brovkina AF, Atarshhikov DS, Bessmertnaja EG, Lipatov DV, Astahov JuS, Sejdasheva JeI, Zolotarev AV, Dogadova LI. Federalnye klinicheskie rekomendatsii po diagnostike i lecheniju endokrinnoj oftalmopatii pri autoimmunnoj patologii schitovidnoj zhelezy [Federal clinical recommendations on diagnostics and treatment of endocrine ophthalmopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid pathology]. Problemy endokrinologii [Problems of endocrinology]. 2015;1:61-74. (Russian).

Bartalena, L. Management of Graves’ ophthalmopathy: reality and perspectives / L. Bartalena, A. Pinchera, C. Marcocci // Endocr. Rev. – 2000. – Vol. 21, № 2. – P. 168-199. – doi: 10.1210/edrv.21.2.0393.

Bartalena L, Pinchera A, Marcocci C. Management of Graves’ ophthalmopathy: Reality and perspectives. Endocr. Rev. 2000;21(2):168-199. doi: 10.1210/edrv.21.2.0393.

Bartalena, L. Risk factors and prevention of Graves’ ophthalmopathy / L. Bartalena, M. L. Tanda, E. Piantanida // 7th Int. Symp. on Graves’ Ophthalmopathy, Pisa, 6-8 Feb. 2003. – Pisa, 2003. – P. 13-14.

Bartalena L, Tanda ML, Piantanida E. Risk factors and prevention of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. In: 7th Int. Symp. on Graves’ Ophthalmopathy; 2003 Feb. 6-8; Pisa, Italy. Pisa; 2003. p. 13-14.

Wiersinga, W. M. An evidencebased approach to the treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy / W. M. Wiersinga, M. F. Prummel // Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. – 2000. – Vol. 29, № 2. – P. 297-319.

Wiersinga WM, Prummel MF. An evidencebased approach to the treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. 2000;29(2):297-319.

Эндокринология : национальное руководство / под ред. И. И. Дедова, Г. А. Мельниченко. – Москва : ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2013. – 752 с.

Dedov II, Melnichenko GA, editors. Endokrinologija. Natsionalnoe rukovodstvo [Endocrinology. National leadership]. Moskva: GEOTAR-Media; 2013. 1064 р. (Russian).

Lind, P. Ablative therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism in patients with ophthalmopathy / P. Lind // Acta Med. Austriaca. – 2001. – Vol. 28, iss. 4. – P. 105-107.

Lind P. Ablative therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism in patients with ophthalmopathy. Acta Med. Austriaca. 2001;28(4):105-107.

Pinchera, A. Thyroid ablation in the management of ophthalmopathy: Pros / А. Pinchera // 7th Int. Symp. On Graves’ Ophthalmopathy, Pisa, 6-8 Feb. 2003. – Pisa, 2003. – P. 18.

Pinchera A. Thyroid ablation in the management of ophthalmopathy: Pros. In: 7th Int. Symp. on Graves’ Ophthalmopathy; 2003 Feb. 6-8; Pisa, Italy. Pisa; 2003. p. 18.

Role of thyroid remnant ablation after thyroidectomy for Graves’ disease: its effects on the course of related ophthalmopathy / M. Moleti [et al.] // 5th Eur. Congr. Of Endocrinol. – Turin, 2001. – P. 13.

Moleti M, et al. Role of thyroid remnant ablation after thyroidectomy for Graves’ disease: its effects on the course of related ophthalmopathy. 5th Eur. Congr. Of Endocrinology. Turin; 2001. p. 13.

Богомазова, Е. В. Особенности диагностики и лечения аутоиммунной офтальмопатии, ассоциированной с патологией щитовидной железы / Е. В. Богомазова, Т. В. Мохорт // Проблемы здоровья и экологии. – 2012. – С. 69-75.

Bogomazova EV, Mohort TV. Osobennosti diagnostiki i lechenija au-toimmunnoj oftalmopatii, assotsiirovannoj s patologiej schitovidnoj shhitovidnoj zhelezy [Features of diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune ophthalmopathy associated with thyroid pathology]. Problemy zdorovja i ekologii [Problems of health аnd еcology]. 2012(3):69-75. (Russian).

Далматова, А. Б. Лечение инфильтративной офтальмопатии / А. Б. Далматова, Е. Н. Гринева // Клиническая и экспериментальная тиреодология. – 2010. – № 3. – С. 16-23.

Dalmatova, AB, Grineva EN. Lechenie infiltrativnoj oftalmopatii [Treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy]. Klinicheskaja i jeksperimentalnaja tireodologija [Clinical and experimental thyroidology]. 2010;3:16-23. (Russian).

Selenium and the Course of Mild Graves’ Orbitopathy / C. Marcocci [et al.] // N. Engl. J. Med. – 2011. – Vol. 364, iss. 20. – Р. 1920-1931. – doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1012985.

Marcocci C, Kahaly GJ, Krassas GE, Bartalena L, Prummel M, Stahl M, Altea MA, Nardi M, Pitz S, Boboridis K, Sivelli P, von Arx G, Mourits MP, Baldeschi L, Bencivelli W, Wiersinga W. Selenium and the Course of Mild Graves’ Orbitopathy. N. Engl. J. Med. 2011;364(20):1920-1931. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1012985.

Богомазова, Е. В. Оценка эффективности различных схем патогенетической терапии аутоиммунной офтальмопатии (АИО) / Е. В. Богомазова // Медицинский журнал. – 2006. – № 1. – С. 37-39.

Bogomazova EV. Ocenka jeffektivnosti razlichnyh shem patogeneticheskoj terapii autoimmunnoj oftalmopatii (AIO) [Evaluation of the effectiveness of various schemes of pathogenetic therapy of autoimmune ophthalmopathy (AIO)]. Medicinskij zhurnal [Medical journal]. 2006;1:37-39. (Russian).

Bartalena, L. Orbital radiotherapy for Graves’ Ophthalmopathy / L. Bartalena, C. Marcocci, A. Pinchera // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2004. – Vol. 89, № 1. – P. 13-14.

Bartalena L, Marcocci C, Pinchera A. Orbital radiotherapy for Graves’ Ophthalmopathy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2004;89(1):13-14.

Mourits, M. P. Is the outcome of immunosuppressive treatment in GO predictable? / M. P. Mourits // 7th Int. Symp. on Graves’ Ophthalmopathy, Pisa, 6-8 Feb. 2003. – Pisa, 2003. – P. 16.

Mourits MP. Is the outcome of immunosuppressive treatment in GO predictable. In: 7th Int. Symp. on Graves’ Ophthalmopathy; 2003 Feb. 6-8; Pisa, Italy. Pisa; 2003. p. 16.

Multi-center study on the characteristics and treatment strategies of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy: the first European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy experience / M. F. Prummel [et al.] // Eur. J. Endocrinol. – 2003. – Vol. 148, iss. 5. – P. 491-495.

Prummel MF, Bakker A, Wiersinga WM, Baldeschi L, Mourits MP, Kendall-Taylor P, Perros P, Neoh C, Dickinson AJ, Lazarus JH, Lane CM, Heufelder AE, Kahaly GJ, Pitz S, Orgiazzi J, Hullo A, Pinchera A, Marcocci C, Sartini MS, Rocchi R, Nardi M, Krassas GE, Halkias A. Multi-center study on the characteristics and treatment strategies of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy: the first European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy experience. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2003;148(5):491-495.

Bartalena, L. Glucocorticoids for Graves` ophthalmopathy: how and when / L. Bartalena // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2005. – Vol. 90, iss. 9. – P. 5497-5499.

Bartalena L. Glucocorticoids for Graves` ophthalmopathy: how and when. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005;90(9):5497-5499.

Krassas, G. E. Modern conceptions of diagnostic and management of TAO / G. E. Krassas, W. M. Wiersinga // Thyroid Int. – 2005. – Vol. 4. – P. 1-20.

Krassas GE, Wiersinga WM. Modern conceptions of diagnostic and management of TAO. Thyroid Int. 2005;4:1-20.

Treatment of Graves` ophtalmopathy with highdose intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy / Y. Nagayama [et al.] // Acta Endocrinol. – 1987. – Vol. 116, iss. 4. – P. 513-518.

Nagayama Y, Izumi M, Kiriyama T, Yokoyama N, Morita S, Kakezono F, Ohtakara S, Morimoto I, Okamoto S, Nagataki S. Treatment of Graves` ophtalmopathy with highdose intravennous methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Acta Endocrinol. 1987;116(4):513-518.

High dose intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy versus oral prednisone for thyroidassociated ophthalmopathy / R. Kauppinen Makelin [et al.] // Acta Ophtalmol. Scand. – 2002. – Vol. 80, iss. 3. – P. 316-321.

Kauppinen‐Mдkelin R, Karma A, Leinonen E, Lцyttyniemi E, Salonen O, Sane T, Setälä K, Viikari J, Heufelder A, Välimäki M. High dose intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy versus oral prednisone for thyroidassociated ophthalmopathy. Acta Ophtalmol. Scand. 2002;80(3):316-321.

High-dose intravenous corticosteroid therapy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy / P. E. Macchia [et al.] // J. Endocrinol. Invest. – 2001. – Vol. 24, iss. 3. – Р. 152-158.

Macchia PE, Bagattini M, Lupoli G, Vitale M. Vitale G, Fenz G. High-dose intravenous corticosteroid therapy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 2001;24(10):152-158.

Randomized, single blind trial of intravenous versus oral steroid monotherapy in Graves` ophthalmopathy / G. J. Kahaly [et al.] // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2005. – Vol. 90, iss. 9. – P. 5234-5240. – doi: 10.1210/jc.2005-0148.

Kahaly GJ, Pitz S, Hommel G, Dittmar M. Randomized, single blind trial of intravenous versus oral steroid monotherapy in Graves` ophthalmopathy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005;90(9):5234-5240. doi: 10.1210/jc.2005-0148.

Бровкина, А. Ф. Эндокринная офтальмопатия / А. Ф. Бровкина. – Москва : ГЭОТАР-МЕД, 2004. – 176 с.

Brovkina AF. Endokrinnaja oftalmopatija [Endocrine ophthalmopathy]. Moskva: GEOTAR-MED; 2004. 176 р. (Russian).

Сорока, Н. Ф. Некоторые проблемы применения глюкортикоидных гормонов в клинической практике / Н. Ф. Сорока // Рецепт. – 2002. – № 2. – С. 40-45.

Soroka NF. Nekotorye problemy primenenija gljukortikoidnyh gormonov v klinicheskoj praktike [Some problems of the use of glucocorticoid hormones in clinical practice]. Recept [Recept]. 2002;(2):40-45. (Russian).

Clinical assessment of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy: the European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy recommendations to generalists, specialists and clinical researchers / European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy ; W. M. Wiersinga [et al.] // Eur. J. Endocrinol. – 2006. – Vol. 155, № 3. – P. 387-389.

European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy; Wiersinga WM, Perros P, Kahaly GJ, Mourits MP, Baldeschi L, Boboridis K, Boschi A, Dickinson AJ, Kendall-Taylor P, Krassas GE, Lane CM, Lazarus JH, Marcocci C, Marino M, Nardi M, Neoh C, Orgiazzi J, Pinchera A, Pitz S, Prummel MF, Sartini MS, Stahl M, von Arx G. Clinical assessment of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy: the European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy recommendations to generalists, specialists and clinical researchers. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2006;155(3):387-389.

Comparison of the effectiveness and tolerability of intravenous or oral glucocorticoids associated with orbital radiotherapy in the management of severe Graves’ ophthalmopathy: results of a prospective, single-blind, randomized study / C. Marcocci [et al.] // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2001. – Vol. 86, № 8. – P. 3562-3567.

Marcocci C, Bartalena L, Laura Tanda M, Manetti L, Dell’Unto E, Rocchi R, Barbesino G, Mazzi B, Pia Bartolomei M, Lepri P. Comparison of the effectiveness and tolerability of intravenous or oral glucocorticoids associated with orbital radiotherapy in the management of severe Graves’ ophthalmopathy: results of a prospective, single-blind, randomized study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2001;86(8):3562-3567.

Orbital cobalt irradiation combined with retrobulbar or systemic corticosteroids for Graves’ ophthalmopathy: a comparative study / C. Marcocci [et al.] // Clin. Endocrinol. – 1987. – Vol. 27, № 1. – P. 33-42.

Marcocci C, Bartalena L, Panicucci, Marconcini C, Cartei F, Cavallacci G. Laddaga M, Campobasso G, Baschieri L, Pinchera A. Orbital cobalt irradiation combined with retrobulbar or systemic corticosteroids for Graves’ ophthalmopathy: a comparative study. Clin. Endocrinol. 1987;27(1):33-42.

Marcocci, C. Orbital radiotherapy: Harmless or harmful? / C. Marcocci // 7th Int. Symp. on Graves’ Ophthalmopathy, Pisa, 6-8 Feb. 2003. – Pisa, 2003. – P. 22-23.

Marcocci C. Orbital radiotherapy: Harmless or harmful? In: 7th Int. Symp. on Graves’ Ophthalmopathy; 2003 Feb. 6-8; Pisa, Italy. Pisa; 2003. p. 22-23.

Dandona, P. Methylprednisolone and Graves` ophthalmopathy / P. Dandona // Br. Med. J. – 1989. – Vol. 298. – P. 830.

Dandona P. Methylprednisolone and Graves` ophthalmopathy. Br. Med. J. 1989;298:830.

Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy of Graves` ophthalmopathy / Y. Hiromatsu [et al.] // Endocr. J. – 1993. – Vol. 40, iss. 1. – P. 63-72.

Hiromatsu Y, Tanaka K, Sato M, Kuroki T, Nonaka K, Kojima K, Nishimura H, Nishida H, Kaise N. Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy of Graves` ophthalmopathy. Endocr. J. 1993;40(1):63-72.

Intravenous methylprednisolone in the treatment of Graves` ophthalmopathy / P. Kendall-Taylor [et al.] // Br. Med. J. – 1988. – Vol. 297. – P. 1574-1578.

Kendall-Taylor P, Crombie AL, Stephenson AM, Hardwick M, Hall K. Intravenous methylprednisolone in the treatment of Graves` ophthalmopathy. Br. Med. J. 1988;297:1574-1578.

Methylprednisolone pulse therapy in severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy / J. Guy [et al.] // Ophthalmology. – 1989. – Vol. 96. – P. 1048-1052.

Guy JR, Fagien S, Donovan JP, Rubin ML. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy in severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 1989;96:1048-1052.

Петунина, Н. А. Эндокринная офтальмопатия: современный взгляд / Н. А. Петунина, Л. В. Трухина, Н. С. Мартиросян // Проблемы эндокринологии. – 2012. – № 6. – С. 24-32.

Petunina NA, Truhina LV, Martirosjan NS. Jendokrinnaja oftalmopatija: sovremennyj vzgljad [Endocrine ophthalmopathy: state of the art approaches]. Problemy jendokrinologii [Problems of endocrinology]. 2012(6):24-32. (Russian).

Kahaly, G. J. Intravenous glucocorticoids for graves’ orbitopathy: efficacy and morbidity / G. J. Kahaly, S. Zang, K. A. Ponto // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2011. – Vol. 96, № 2. – Р. 320-332.

Kahaly GJ, Zang S, Ponto K A. Intravenous glucocorticoids for graves’ orbitopathy: efficacy and morbidity. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2011;96(2):320-332.

Wiersinga, W. M. Epidemiology and prevention of Graves’ ophthalmopathy / W. M. Wiersinga, L. Bartalena // Thyroid. – 2002. – Vol. 12. – P. 855-860.

Wiersinga WM, Bartalena L. Epidemiology and prevention of Graves` ophthalmopathy. Thyroid. 2002;12:855-860.

Виноградская, О. И. Безопасность различных режимов пульс-терапии метилпреднизолоном при лечении эндокринной офтальмопатии / О. И. Виноградская, Д. В. Липатов, В. В. Фадеев // Клиническая и экспериментальная тиреодология. – 2012. – № 3. – С. 52-58.

Vinogradskaja OI, Lipatov DV, Fadeev VV. Bezopasnost razlichnyh rezhimov puls-terapii metilprednizolonom pri lechenii jendokrinnoj oftalmopatii [Safety of different types of methylprednisolone puls-therapy in the treatment of Graves’ orbitopathy]. Klinicheskaja i jeksperimentalnaja tireodologija [Clinical and experimental thyroidology]. 2012;(3):52-58. (Russian).

Hiromatsu, Y. Steroid therapy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy Nippon Rinsho / Y. Hiromatsu // Nihon Rinsho. – 2006. – Vol. 64, iss. 12. – Р. 2279-2285.

Hiromatsu Y. Steroid therapy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy Nippon Rinsho. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;64(12):2279-2285.

Determinants of liver damage associated with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy in Graves’ ophthalmopathy / R. Le Moli [et al.] // Thyroid. – 2007. – Vol. 17, iss. 4. – Р. 357-362.

Moli RLe, Baldeschi L, Saeed P, Regensburg N, Mourits MP, Wiersinga WM. Determinants of liver damage associated with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy in Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Thyroid. 2007;17(4):357-362.

Dourakis, S. P. Acute severe steatohepatitis related to prednisolone therapy / S. P. Dourakis, V. A. Sevastianos, P. Kaliopi // Am. J. Gastroenterol. – 2002. – Vol. 97, № 4. – Р. 1074-1075.

Dourakis SP, Sevastianos VA, Kaliopi P. Acute severe steatohepatitis related to prednisolone therapy. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2002;97(4):1074-1075.

Fatal and nonfatal adverse events of glucocorticoid therapy for Graves’ orbitopathy: a questionnaire survey among members of the European Thyroid Association / C. Marcocci [et al.] // Eur. J. Endocrinol. – 2012. – Vol. 166, iss. 2. – Р. 247-253.

Marcocci C, Watt T, Altea MA, Rasmussen AK, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Orgiazzi J, Bartalena L. Fatal and nonfatal adverse events of glucocorticoid therapy for Graves’ orbitopathy: a questionnaire survey among members of the European Thyroid Association. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2012;166(2):247-253.

Randomized double-blind trial of prednisone versus radiotherapy in Graves’ ophthalmopathy / M. F. Prummel [et al.] // Lancet. – 1993. – Vol. 342, iss. 8877. – P. 949-954.

Prumme MF, Mourits MP, Blank L, Berghout A, Koornneef L, Wiersinga WM. Randomized double-blind trial of prednisone versus radiotherapy in Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Lancet. 1993;342(8877):949-954.

Orbital irradiation for Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Is it safe? A long-term follow-up study / I. M. Wakelkamp [et al.] // Ophthalmology. – 2004. – Vol. 111, iss. 8. – P. 1557-1562.

Wakelkamp IM, Tan H, Saeed P, Schlingemann RO, Verbraak FD, Blank LE, Prummel MF, Wiersinga WM. Orbital irradiation for Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Is it safe? A long-term follow-up study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(8):1557-1562.

Long term therapeutic effects of orbital radiotherapy associated with systemic glucocorticoids in the management of moderate-severe Graves’ ophthalmopathy / R. Rocchi [et al.] // 7th Int. Symp. on Graves’ Ophthalmopathy, Italy, Pisa, 6-8 Feb. 2003. – Pisa, 2003. – P. 43.

Rocchi R. Long term therapeutic effects of orbital radiotherapy associated with systemic glucocorticoids in the management of moderate-severe Graves’ ophthalmopathy. In: 7th Int. Symp. on Graves’ Ophthalmopathy; 2003 Feb. 6-8; Pisa, Italy. Pisa; 2003. p. 43.

Long-term safety of orbital radiotherapy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy / C. Marcocci [et al.] // Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2003. – Vol. 88, № 8. – Р. 3561-3566.

Marcocci C, Bartalena L, Rocchi R, Marinò M, Menconi F, Morabito E, Mazzi B, Mazzeo S, Sartini MS, Nardi M, Cartei F, Cionini L, Pinchera A. Long-term safety of orbital radiotherapy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2003;88(8):3561-3566.

Ciclosporin and prednisone vs. prednisone in treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy: a controlled, randomized and prospective study / G. Kahaly [et al.] // Eur. J. Clin. Invest. – 1986. – Vol. 16, № 5. – Р. 415-422.

Kahaly G, Schrezenmeir J, Krause U, Schweikert B. Meuer S, Muller W, Dennebaum R, Beyer J. Ciclosporin and prednisone vs. prednisone in treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy: a controlled, randomized and prospective study. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 1986;16(5):415-422.

Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and octreotide treatment in patients with thyroid eye disease / G. E. Krassas [et al.] // Clin. Endocrinol. – 1995. – Vol. 42, № 6. – P. 571-580.

Krassas GE, Dumas A, Pontikides N, Kaltsas T. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and octreotide treatment in patients with thyroid eye disease. Clin. Endocrinol. 1995;42(6):571-580.

Lanreotide in the treatment of patients with thyroid eye disease / G. E. Krassas [et al.] // Eur. J. Endocrinol. – 1997. – Vol. 136, № 4. – P. 416-422.

Krassas GE, Kaltsas T, Dumas A, Pontikides N, Tolis G. Lanreotide in the treatment of patients with thyroid eye disease. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 1997;136(4):416-422.

Antioxidant agents in the treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy / E. A. Bouzas [et al.] // Am. J. Ophthalmol. – 2000. – Vol. 129, № 5. – P. 618-622.

Bouzas EA, Karadimas P, Mastorakos G, Koutras DA. Antioxidant agents in the treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2000;129(5):618-622.

Влияние терапии пентоксифиллином и глюкокортикостероидами на апоптоз и пролиферативную активность мононуклеаров периферической крови у больных с сочетанием болезни Грейвса-Базедова и аутоиммунной офтальмопатии / И. Р. Мельник [и др.] // Медицинские новости. – 2011. – № 4. – С. 97-100.

Melnik IR, Danilova LI, Kosmacheva SM, Goncharova NV, Kirilenko ZhM. Vlijanie terapii pentoksifillinom i gljukokortikosteroidami na apoptoz i proliferativnuju aktivnost mononuklearov perifericheskoj krovi u bolnyh s sochetaniem bolezni Grejvsa-Bazedova i autoimmunnoj oftalmopatii [Influence of pentoxifylline and glucocorticoids on peripheral blood mononuclear cells apoptosis and proliferation of patients with Graves’ disease and ophthalmopathy]. Medicinskie novosti. [Medical news]. 2011;4:97-100. (Russian).

Rituximab treatment of patients with severe, corticosteroid-resistant thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy / D. Khanna [et al.] // Ophthalmology. – 2010. – Vol. 117, № 1. – Р. 133-139.

Khanna D, Chong KKL, Afifiyan NF, Hwang CJ, Lee DK, Garneau HC, Goldberg RA, Darwin CH, Smith TJ, Douglas RSRituximab treatment of patients with severe, corticosteroid-resistant thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(1):133-139.

Treatment of Graves’ disease and associated ophthalmopathy with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab: an open study / M. Salvi [et al.] // Eur. J. Endocrinol. – 2007. – Vol. 156, № 1. – Р. 33-40.

Salvi M, Vannucchi G, Campi I, Currò N, Dazz D, Simonetta S, Bonara P, Rossi S, Sina C, Guastella C, Ratiglia R, Beck-Peccoz P. Treatment of Graves’ disease and associated ophthalmopathy with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab: an open study. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2007;156(1):33-40.

Bahn, R. S. Graves’ ophthalmopathy / R. S. Bahn // N. Engl. J. Med. – 2010. – Vol. 362, № 8. – P. 726-738.

Bahn RS. Graves’ ophthalmopathy. N. Engl. J. Med. 2010;362:(8):726-738.

Rituximab in the treatment of thyroid eye disease: science fiction? / M. Salvi [et al.] // Orbit. – 2009. – Vol. 28, № 4. – P. 251-255.

Salvi M, Vannucchi G, Campi I, Beck-Peccoz P. Rituximab in the treatment of thyroid eye disease: science fiction? Orbit. 2009;28(4);251-255.

Стратегия и тактика лечебного плазмафереза при аутоиммунных заболеваниях / В. В. Кирковский [и др.] // Диагностика и лечение аутоиммунных заболеваний : сб. науч. тр. и тез. докл. междунар. конф., Минск, 27 сент. 2002 г. / ред. Е. А. Пономарев, Е. А. Короткевич. – Минск, 2002. – С. 82-85.

Kirkovskij VV, Mitkovskaja NP, Laban FN, Starostin AV, Dus DD, Klimovich OV. Strategija i taktika lechebnogo plazmafereza pri autoimmunnyh zabolevanijah. In: Ponomarev EA, Korotkevich EA, editors. Diagnostika i lechenie autoimmunnyh zabolevanij. Sbornik nauchnyh trudov i tezisov dokladov mezhdunarodnoj konferencii; 2002 Sept. 27; Minsk. Minsk; 2002. p. 82-86. (Russian).

Камалов, И. И. Сравнительная характеристика методов лечения эндокринной офтальмопатии / И. И. Камалов, И. В. Гуляева, Р. Р. Ахмадеев // Вестник современной клинической медицины. – 2010. – № 4. – С. 50-52.

Kamalov II, Guljaeva IV, Ahmadeev RR. Sravnitelnaja harakteristika metodov lechenija jendokrinnoj oftalmopatii [The comparative characteristic of treatments for thyroid eye disease].Vestnik sovremennoj klinicheskoj mediciny [The bulletin of contemporary clinical medicine]. 2010;4:50-52. (Russian).


Ссылки

  • На текущий момент ссылки отсутствуют.